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searching for information about family SITNIKOV whilst in Harbin and Shanghai 1923 - 1951

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Russia for 80 years, has been completely lost. If we consider the polar differences in self-perception, ideology, level of general culture and nature of education, the question of succession to the Soviet commanders' traditions of Russian officers "(which has become fashionable to say after the introduction of epaulettes in 1943) just seem out of place, and no other officers not yet available. In any case, in order to create something similar is still the officers, borrowing some of the trappings totally inadequate. It is impossible to create without returning officer corps of the prestige and position it once occupied in society. In the Soviet period, a high degree of militarization of the country, paradoxically, detrimental impact on the status of the officer corps. When officer ranks produced a huge number of persons who are not directly related to the army, consisting in positions which are not replaced in Russia it is not something that the officers, but even [532] military officials, the very nature of the officer lost rank and position in society officer . A huge number of generals and colonel positions and the quality of the occupants led to a strong devaluation of the officers' ranks. Finally, the unprecedented defamation, which during 1989-1993 exposed the army as such, dealt a severe blow to the prestige of the officer's profession, relegating it to such a low level that it is difficult to choose the analogues in the world history. An apparent loss of social concepts of honor and dignity of the officer corps, and it was not so much the officers themselves, as established in the circumstances of their life and the general moral and political disorientation.
The collapse of the country and its relegation to the status of residual and semi-dependent secondary objective to the extent hindered the growth of the popularity of the officer's profession that no measures to improve the welfare of soldiers (especially not very effective in a difficult economic situation) could not rectify the situation. Officer position in its essence profoundly "of ideology." The officer can not be brought up differently, as in the concept of nobility and honor its mission, aware of its role in the high life of the state. As mentioned in one of the pre-revolutionary teachings, "the officer class is noble in the world as its members should not seek either to benefit or to the acquisition of wealth or other worldly goods, but to remain faithful to their high, holy calling, guided around the requirements of true honor and focusing all the thoughts and feelings of selfless dedication to their highest superiors and the fatherland. " To feel pride in his profession, an officer must first see it as some higher meaning, rather than simply finding a livelihood. The officer in the nature of their profession need clear and precise orientations, he must be sure that behind him is the power that embodies the interests of the country and that under no circumstances will not give offense to it - the first defender of interesov- Only then it is free from worries about the survival of their families and out of reach for all sorts of selfish temptations.
Recently, in this regard, there have been, however, some shifts that, in fact, give rise to talk about the possibility of rebuilding the Russian officers. It should be noted a number of encouraging factors. First, the refusal of alien historical Russia and national-state interests of the country's ideological stereotypes made it theoretically possible to direct appeal to the experiences and history of the Russian state and its military organization. Secondly, with the approval of the course for the restoration of Russia's position as a great power and there is an objective interest of the government in the revival of the army and, therefore, primarily its officer corps. Then, there are now already a lot of officers who feel the need and sincerely aspiring to be followers of [533] , and heirs of the Russian officers. Finally, the reduction of the number of members of the army creates objective prerequisites for more careful selection of candidates for officers and improve the qualitative composition of the officer corps.

family Sitnikov, Potekhina (Sofia Lukinishna), Taranovsky (Sofia Leonidovna), Anna Konstantinovna Bogdanovich/Nakamura, Georgy Y. Rott, Alexandra Trofimovna Sitnikova-Savrasova/Pokrovsky
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It seems certain that the formation of the officer corps of the new Russia would need to start with the establishment of its place in the state and social system of the country, with the creation of a legal framework, outlining the position of the officers. This would contribute to building a system of benefits and advantages, allowing to provide selection in military schools on a competitive basis at the maximum number of candidates for each seat. As noted above, the most important feature of the historical Russian officers was his corporate character, provides a high degree of cohesion and identity of the officer. Indeed, the officer corps must form its own particular corporation and be clearly demarcated on the status of the other categories of military personnel, in any case without merging them into a common mass of people in uniform. It should not include too many people whose occupation is different from civilian occupations: this would be the result of hypertrophic growth in the number of officers and, as a consequence, the loss of a particular spirit and attitude.
In this regard, it is extremely harmful tendency (particularly evident in connection with the idea of creating a professional army) officers dissolution of the entire mass of soldiers, officers from the leveling of differences between sergeants and privates enlistees composition. This is largely due to the same time a widespread desire to blindly adopt orders and reporting on service inherent in the American army Although it is difficult to imagine the military tradition, more than the Russian and least meet the conditions of the country than the US. However, the United States, at least, able to create his military high enough financial incentive to compensate for the rest.
To attract and concentration in the composition of the officer corps of the best "human material" must be assigned to him a special position in society. This, as well as training needs of corporate spirit and identity of the officer dictated the need for the unconditional release of the legal officer corps in a special institution, the members of which should have a set of rights that distinguish them not only from the rest of the population, but also on other categories of military personnel. To this end, a number of objective conditions, the most important of which, incidentally, is a very high degree of heredity officer profession. Essentially it comes to the de jure to consolidate and develop the position of de facto by providing, for example, people from the families of officers-emptive right to enroll in military schools, etc.

family Sitnikov, Potekhina (Sofia Lukinishna), Taranovsky (Sofia Leonidovna), Anna Konstantinovna Bogdanovich/Nakamura, Georgy Y. Rott, Alexandra Trofimovna Sitnikova-Savrasova/Pokrovsky
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Just a few years ago in Russia on a new [534] the legal basis was actually recreated Cossack "class" may put the question of securing special status and the officers. It is no accident in recent years raised the question of the restoration on the basis of the officer's service "new nobility". In particular, it published a letter Colonel, which said: "Serving the Motherland for me and many of my colleagues, is the meaning of life. We have always had great respect for concepts such as dignity, patriotism, word as an officer. I believe that modern Russian officers could today with dignity and honor to wear the honorary title of a nobleman.

family Sitnikov, Potekhina (Sofia Lukinishna), Taranovsky (Sofia Leonidovna), Anna Konstantinovna Bogdanovich/Nakamura, Georgy Y. Rott, Alexandra Trofimovna Sitnikova-Savrasova/Pokrovsky
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Restoration of this age-old historical tradition would raise the profile and prestige of the Russian Army, and in reviving the nobility breathe a fresh spirit, adding to its ranks reliable, faithful Homeland people " {378} . This issue was dedicated to the art and in one of the Russian Nobility Assembly, which examined possible ways to restore specific practices anoblirovaniya taking into account the historical traditions of Russia and noted that in order to justify such its special position in society, the officer corps should really consist of individuals, the level of general culture which, if not higher, in any case not less than the civilian intellectuals, from individuals who have relevant identity and outlook {379} . Whatever it was, but measures for a radical change in social status and prestige of the officers are inextricably linked with the reform of the Russian army, and if the latter is finally lifted from his knees, then, in all probability, and officers will inevitably take the appropriate position in the society and will play a prominent role in the life of the country

family Sitnikov, Potekhina (Sofia Lukinishna), Taranovsky (Sofia Leonidovna), Anna Konstantinovna Bogdanovich/Nakamura, Georgy Y. Rott, Alexandra Trofimovna Sitnikova-Savrasova/Pokrovsky
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Chapter 3. The cadets and cadets

Let us return from the bloody gray labor / Over you ascend Russia, / sun new then! .. (From Warsong drozdovtsev)

The idea we are always faithful to the holy. God is the one who goes to the feat. And one soldier in the field. Victory or death . (motto cadet school in exile)

(From the book .: An.Markov "Cadets and cadets," San Francisco, 1961).

In 1831 . it was created by the General Rules for the military schools, the foundation of which was laid of the Emperor Nicholas I: "The pupil of the Cadet Corps to become a Christian, loyal, a good son, a reliable friend, humble and educated young men, executive, patient and efficient officer. .. "(page . 11)

Boys in uniform in appearance ... and more internally, so different from their peers who studied in civilian institutions. Independently, without merging with them, they behaved these children and young men who wore the name - "Cadet", as if conscious of themselves as members of a special order, to which the Russian pre-revolutionary intelligentsia belonged if not hostile, then at any rate, with some conviction. Cadet Corps ... lived very different ideals ... and breathe another air. Their worldview was clear and simple, and it is cultivated only in the world of the old walls of the cadet corps, regardless of the color of their epaulettes ... And in the capital and in remote provinces, all the cadets were united ...

In those days, no one inspired Cadets love and devotion to the king and country and no one insisted on his duty, valor and self-sacrifice. But in all the housing situation it was something that no words spoken to them about these high-concept, saying without words the child's soul that it is attached to a world where death for the fatherland is sacred and self-evident thing ...
Always, both within the native housing, and later in life, Cadet Cadet remained a friend and brother ... We old cadets firmly believe ... that our voice carriers last cadet legends and traditions finds an echo in the hearts of all future Cadet It will be destined to create a new and free Russia. (P. 16-20)

By 1900. led military schools will Emperor Nicholas II was staged his uncle, Grand Duke Konstantin, who until his death was at the head of the military education, ie, 15 years. (P. 13)

Veale. Prince Konstantin in a letter:
"All I say that I am kind and forgiving to the Cadets, and no one knows what happiness gives me an opportunity to show respect to their kindness and affection. The fact that I get much more from them than give. Do not take more than two days in any case, during my obezdili as my rapprochement with the Cadets is becoming so close and intimate that the parting with them causes me great sorrow. On the day of departure in the morning, I start to languish impending separation from them and, believe it when the train almost all the Cadets, even the largest, at rasstovanii weep bitterly with me, and I can not help myself from crying ... "(p. 21)

(Zh. "All", number 164, Paris, 1936. P. 23)

In the white hall of Sumy Cadet Corps includes august inspector general of military schools, Grand Duke Konstantin. 500 pairs of young eyes with admiration and adoration dug into the high stately "Romanov" figure of the Grand Duke ...

Bedroom 4th Company, the youngest cadet. They are placed to sleep, talking animatedly about his impressions of the day - visit the body of Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich. And suddenly he comes, as always, without retinue. Slowly he passes rows of beds and joking with the Cadets.
There he saw a kid who diligently Lays his bed.
The Grand Duke took the pillow, quietly sneaks up and suddenly throws a pillow at him. Frustrated little cadet, not realizing what he was doing, throwing the pillow back. Grand Duke catches it on the fly and throws in another cadet. It was like a signal for the general battle. Cushions flew in different directions, but mainly - in the Grand Duke.

Jokingly, bounces the Grand Duke, and finally grabbed the next two cadets, overturns them on the bed and leans back on it is a whole bunch of kids live. Came running scared company commanders and educator to tidy rambunctious cadet, they had to resort to ... command "Attention! "

The rumpled jacket, laughing Grand Duke rises from the bed and pretended to threaten finger.

- Your Imperial Highness, give something to remember! - Cadets shout chorus. Grand Duke takes the handkerchief and throws it. He picked up and torn into a hundred pieces, and each cadet hurry to hide a lifetime precious piece, as the memory of August, the chief favorite, this road, so close to our heart ... Cadet

(From the book .: Eugene. Vadim "Cornets and animals" ("School of Nice"), Belgrade, 1929 ).

Who dares to go to "school", choosing their life by way of an officer ... - he must know why and for what he is. He must silently, humbly and consciously agree with everything that awaits him in the future in the form of various moral barriers ... Go through the lights and strive to one: be nimble, "distinct", "dashing" noble, disciplined and loyal. Faithful to God, the King, Fatherland, debt, arms, comrades, the shelf standard of ... (p. 10-11)

... From the newspapers and rumors at the school we knew that the King this year with great attention ... refers to visiting military schools and other institutions, which educate the younger generation of the then Empire.
- It was already in the pages ... was in Pavlovsk Institute ... have been jurists ...
- We will not come! - Says one of the pessimists. - We all sovereigns does not happen ... The last visited Alexander II-st ... school is far from the center, in a remote place ... we will not go to the king, do not wait! .. (P. 49)

A week passed, and the other - everything was normal, everything was going its own order and no one at the school did not go. And now ... Over the coachman sat on the sled officer, dressed in ordinary gray officer's coat.

We all understand and learn at the same time - the King!

Someone shouted excitedly, "cheers", which together took up more - and a second - a "cheers" has powerfully thundering all platoons. "He came! He's down at the duty room! There are, down the hall! Hurray!" Confused and anxious flew our platoon replacement officer - Prince Urusov.

"What are you doing ?! How can scream platoon! We must hurry to the classroom and in the arena - combatant classes begin! March on the spot!" We did have an hour of disassembly and assembly of weapons, for which was already riding. How drenched with cold water, we rushed into classes, while others change quickly ran to the arena.

In the class we had to sit for long. Somewhere neighbors burst response to the greeting: "Good morning, Your Imperial Majesty" - and after two or three minutes - the glass door of the classroom opened, and it easily and freely entered the Emperor Nicholas II-the second coat in the Transfiguration of the colonel, gold wing-adyutantskimi knots at the shoulder.

King of medium height, with a pure white face and bordered by a small rusoyu beard, hair combed "parted" on the left side ... On the feet simple matte chrome boots, in his left hand an ordinary officer's cap with a red band. (P. 50-51)

Emperor, smiling, looked at our numbers, went to the window, leaned against the doorjamb of his - and listened to the answers cadets on small business and ordinances.
Someone answering the blackboard - suddenly confused, lost - and began to "float." King corrected him, and brought further suggested "floating" on the right path ...

In those moments when we talk about building a cavalry regiment in the back tower - as if suddenly disappeared in the class ... I cant Emperor was a simple window seat of an army officer, apparently well acquainted with the construction of statutes, because everything said King, It was quite in accordance with the charter of the parade ...

When the Emperor, thanking us out of the classroom and, accompanied by the head of school and the other officers, went to the church and out of it in the playpen - we have not considered with schedules and regulations, and without any restraint rushed after him, making his way back stairs and all sorts of detours. (P. 51)

Unnoticed by the school's courtyards filled with people, and all of the New Peterhof avenue in front of the school - already filled with a thick, colorful and curious crowd the outskirts of St. Petersburg.
- The King! .. King! .. I ... One cadets arrived! .. - And then opened the big doors in the arena - starts swirling cloud of thick vapor mingled with the cold outside air and the average growth of the Transfiguration of the colonel, smiling and putting his hand to his cap, he went out to his crew.

Thundered, poured "cheers", which was no longer confinement ... all mixed up around the place, where the king's sleigh - and the officers and cadets, and "civilians from the arena" and everything bitty and work that was thrown from myself inns abound buildings and school services - all lived unusually, the flame of life moments that could only generate and cause the royal visit. (P. 53)

King barely sat down on the seat sled.
And around him - clinging to ledges goat coachman of the king's seat, the tabs for oral, standing on rails, frantically jumped at zaletki - bunches of grapes hanging cadets.

But the cadets - no one else could, and did not dare to admit anything like that ... It was our privilege integral, our hallowed custom law.
Quietly, patiently and majestically perched high above us all the royal coachman, with a black beard and a quadrangular blue cap. ..

- Oh, God! - Emperor said. And the horses moved. Touched the pitch - but surely, almost without effort. A great effort was required! .. Not move the sled with the driver who was sitting behind him, and the Emperor, but rather a special kind of bee swarm, stuck to one place.
- Interesting! - The Emperor smiled, surprised to find that one of the cadets of small stature was sitting at his feet, a cavity sled, hunched, - how many of us are going? - Start counting.
- Just eighteen, Your Majesty
- Not bad ... - more fun Emperor said. - And everyone comfortable?
- Why, Your Majesty! Very! ..
- Give something to remember, Your Majesty! - Said one of the most outspoken.
- nothing else! - Said the Emperor. Two handkerchiefs I took back in the arena! .. - And the horses walked and walked forward, with shouting "hurray", among the crowd ran along the sides, dressed in gray cadet overcoat ...

Suddenly, a sharp whistle hoots and screams stood out from the general buzz. Billowing snow, one after the other, dashing caracoled raced on horseback on the sides of the king's sleigh cadets Cossacks ... They posedlali their horses and accompanied the emperor in his sleigh ... with Nicholas II turned out of the gate of the school at the New Peterhof, moving to Egyptian Bridge - and cadets - all lucky continued to follow along with the King in his sleigh and their runners, and the Cossacks rushed around doing trick riding, tumbling and showed his natural boldness ...

And only at the Egyptian Bridge Emperor he raised his hand and pointed to the way to college ...
- Home, home! Pretty gentlemen .. Goodbye! ..

The driver held a couple of ... Liberated from the many passengers have quickly moved the sledge - entered the Egyptian, turned along the embankment.
The emperor turned again, made a friendly sign with his hand in a white glove ... (p. 54-55)

King ... the great king, vast country, the leader of the incalculable, victorious, glorious army in the world ... So I think it felt as if the hearts Gorelov ...
After three days of our school was empty. The king ordered the release of all in the three-day holiday, forgive all penalties and transfer all fined to the highest rank ... (Pages 55-56)

(From the book .: Yu.Galushko, A.Kolesnikov "School of the Russian officers," Wiley, 1993).

First of all cadets instills the idea that lies humiliates people in the cadet corps this flaw has always been considered the most serious. Teachers should treat pupils as equals, as a future to his fellow officers, among which simply can not be deception and lies. And if it happened that any cadet junior class started lying, trying to avoid punishment in that case the teacher told him: "You're so afraid of the punishment that you want to twist a lie. I'm not going to punish you, but do not disgrace ourselves and cowardice lie, better not tell me anything. "

Such an attitude or the like teacher awakened the students a sense of shame to a much greater extent than the expectation of punishment ... In those days, the word of an officer given to anyone, valued very highly and is not in question. (P. 107)

(From the book .: An.Markov "Cadets and cadets," ed. "Overall Cadet association in San Francisco," 1961).

In the days of the Bolshevik revolution in October 1917. in arms fought against the Bolsheviks in Petrograd almost all military schools, led by particularly affected by the struggle Nicholas Engineering. (P. 230)

In the fight for the White Russian cadets ... (together with the officers and students - Ed.) For several days defending Moscow from seizing her by the Bolsheviks, and the third company of the School, even after the defeat who did not want to surrender their weapons, were destroyed by red polls. (P. 228)

Cadets ... covered themselves these days immortal glory in the struggle with the Reds. They fought for two weeks, proving in practice that means for the Russian cadet and cadet friendly spike and mutual assistance. (P. 236)

The first groups of volunteers, began to fight with the Reds at Rostov and Taganrog, were in the vast majority of its composed of cadets and cadets, as well as other groups ... the founders of the struggle with the Reds.

In November, 1917. in Novocherkassk Junker Battalion formed and a second cadet ... 27 November, he was ordered to dive into the train and fifty Don Cossack military school was sent to Nakhichevan (near Rostov - Ed.). Unload under enemy fire, the battalion quickly built as on the teachings and walking upright, he rushed to attack the Reds.

Knocking them out of the woods, it is entrenched in it, and went on a shooting fight with the support of our two guns. In this battle, almost entirely lost platoon, consisting of ... Orlovsky and Odessa cadet corps. Founded after the fight appeared disfigured corpses and pricked with bayonets. Russian children's blood-stained Cadet Russian land in the first fight, laid the foundation of the Volunteer Army and the White struggle in the capture of Rostov-on-Don. (P. 238)

In January, 1918. Ekaterinodare was established group of volunteers called "Salvation Kuban" ... consisting of various cadet corps and cadets. (Page 238)

All cadets and cadets was one impulse, one dream - to sacrifice himself for the Motherland. ... Only this explains all the success of the volunteers against numerous enemies. (Pg. 24 0)

During the period 1917-18. killing all 23 military schools and cadet corps of the 31 that existed before March 1917. in Russia. The loss of most of them was terrible ... like the wholesale massacre of staff and cadet corps of Tashkent, which can be equated to the Massacre of the Innocents did at the dawn of the New Testament. It was unworthy of the Bolshevik revenge for the fact that a company of marching cadets Tashkent participated in the defense of the Tashkent fortress with cadets and school warrant. (P. 242)

(From the book .: gene. A.V.Turkul "Drozdovtsy on fire", Munich, 1948).

... Russian boy went into the fire for everyone. He sensed that we have truth and honor, that the Russian us holy. All the future of Russia came to us because they are the volunteers - the pupils, schoolboys, cadets, realists would become Russia creative, follow us. The whole future of Russia defended under our banner; she realized that the Soviet rapists prepare her a fatal blow ...

Honest Russian youth - the future of all Russian - has been with us all. And it's quite true: little boys were everywhere, little boys everywhere ...
schoolboy Ivanov, who retired in Drozdovskii hike, or Cadet Grigoriev - will write anyone and only when at least some of the thousands of these children's names ... (p. 61- 62)

All mothers who gave their sons to fire, I'd like to say that their sons brought the fire shrine Spirit that in all its purity youth they lay for Russia. Their sacrifice God sees. I would like to tell mothers that their sons, the soldiers almost sixteen years old, with gentle hollows at the back, with a boyish skinny shoulders, with the children's necks, tied to a campaign on household handkerchiefs became sacred for the Russian victims.

Young Russia all came with us to the fire . The extraordinary, bright and beautiful was on fire this young Russian. That never happened, as the one under the banner of fighting, the children volunteer, pronёsshayasya in the attacks and blood shining vision.

That Russia, beamed in the fire, still will. For all that the future Russian Russia, poor officers and soldiers, boys, become more Russian holy ... (p. 66-67)

(From the book .: "50 years of loyalty to Russia 1917-67gg." Ed. "Markovtsev gunners", Paris, 1967).

Song cadet battery: jubilant click proclaimed enemies, / What they do not overpower the Petrograd cadets. / In the Castle of Engineers, we avenged them / blows of powerful bayonets. Let pour streams - we are not afraid / A gray chest broken wave / mighty walls, we like Cliffs us rally. / win given to us by God. Well, Fall stronghold - are giants / Death, to destroy the Bolshevik regiments. / Kornilov move dashing guards / Dear young cadets. beaten Russia we carry liberty; / Let your faith volunteers. / Great Russian curse People / swear that we will win! .. November 1917. Novocherkassk (p. 2)

... Sacrifice and feats displayed by our generation in the days of the dangers of Russia, its history flooded glare and remain our legacy to future generations, how to love, serve and die for their country. (P. 4)

(Zh. "All", No. 3, Paris, 1929. P. 8)

Everywhere and anywhere where there is a detachment Tchernetsoff, thousands of red ran in front of tens of young men ... partisans, cadet boys, students and high school students ...
"Partisan Colonel Tchernetsoff not afraid to look death in the eye!" - Ripping off a bandage before the shooting, shouting in the face of the executioners 16-year-old boy trapped in red and captured before the former only a week on the front ...

(From the book .: A.Suvorin, Al.Poroshin "Kornilov Hike", Rostov-on-Don, 1919).

The commander of the guerrilla group of white men (cadets, cadets and students) esaul Tchernetsov at the meeting of the Cossacks, who did not want to defend their village:
- Yes, I'm going to die! But you also will perish! The difference between me and your death will be that I'll know what I'm dying and I will die with delight, and you will not know what die and perish in the deep basement blunt silence, like sheep to the slaughter ... * ( p. 85) (* Colonel Tchernetsov fell on the field of honor Feb. 3 / 21st of January 1918. After the Civil War, in which the side of the Bolsheviks fought tens of thousands of Cossacks who had a red "Decossackization": the Cossacks as a nation was destroyed ... - Ed. )

- Thank God, I'm happy - I killed! - The last words of Lieutenant Peter Vasilyev Ice campaign. (P. 81)

January 1918. The fighting near Taganrog.
Attacks red to support the men and heavy artillery. All their attempts to beat off a glorious cadet battalion, for the first time perform tasks on their own, received combat hardening and, in fact, who studied at war. His young and inexperienced sisters of mercy, yesterday schoolgirls, learning by doing their work is not easy, requiring, besides, complete composure and tranquility ...

Cadets strong shot in the nose. Sister Shura confused - dressing complex and it is a pity ... Cadet. She burst into tears. She consoled himself wounded, too, began to shed tears. Ligation yet done. (P. 98)

(Cadet battery led the gene. Borowski, who called his teenage soldiers' children. "It's stuck in the Volunteer Army -" General Borowski children ... "The location of the other volunteers came for their parents taken away home - joined the White armies in the campaign, having run away from home and asked in part to another commander ... - Ed.)

From the first day classes began ... All the officers and battalion commander, gen. Borovsky, we were inseparable in the battalion. Young people eagerly take everything that she taught ... Page. 67)

(From the book .: V.H.Davatts and N.N.Lvov "Russian army in exile", Belgrade, 1923).

First of all, they were Russian.
A gust of its elevated position, in its bezkorystiyu, dedication and courage of so exceptional that it is difficult to find another similar in history - that showed Russian youth in their intense struggle against this monstrous evil as Bolshevism. And the more the circle was a manifestation of cowardice, the more dirt stuck to the White movement, the lofty seems quite a feat, requiring the exertion of all the moral strength to get out of the quagmire.

Neuvenchanny ... this feat the bezkorystnee, the less he otsenёn people. (P. 65)

(From the book .: S.N.Ryasnyansky "Ice March 1918-1953gg." Ed. "Defence Union Pervopohodnikov", Paris, 1953).

- Dies, of course, too early and do not want - and need ... (The conversation cadet patrol. Rifles were one and a half times as long as those soldiers. - Ed.) (P. 34)

April 2, 1918. The village Medvedovskaya.
On one wagon nurse arguing with her in three places wounded ward: "Listen, boy, and you're not fair-haired and gray-haired, old man ... You'd have to be a general."
"No, no, sister I am not gray, it's probably from the meal when I'm in (the village) ... under the barn sat back again hit two grenades ... And I too will be general, if a cadet will not die ... "
"No, dear, it is still not on the flour will, but from flour ". (P. 34)

(From the book .: Lieutenant Colonel. E.Pavlov "Markovtsev in battles and campaigns for Rossiiyu 1917-1920gg.", Paris, 1962., T.1,2)

He died Cadet Class 5, Tikhonov Alexei. The officer approached him, his tutor in the body, and putting his hand on the head of the sufferer, told him words of comfort, barely restraining himself from crying. The boy-cadet, taking the hand of his officers, and holding in his already growing cold hand, a weak voice said: "I know I'll be dead soon! But death for the Faith, for Russia can be gladly accepted ..." (Vol.1, p. 186)

Michael Gorodetsky suffered heavily from a wound in the stomach and told her: "Such flour I stand quietly, because aware that suffered for a just cause." (P. 67)

Born and deepened as the law of the motto: "The Cross and the Sword" - Cross service, sword in hand; "Without fear and reproach"; "Valor and modesty." (Volume 1, p. 257) "Forgetting yourself - to serve Russia." (P. 260)

In autumn 1918 the first to enter into an armed struggle with red young volunteers, future Markovtsev and autumn of 1920 with the same Markovtsev guards ended the fight with Art. Kurman in Crimea, leading the battle throughout the day with their surrounding Budyonny cavalry. This battle ended the armed struggle in the south of Russia. (P. 362)

family Sitnikov, Potekhina (Sofia Lukinishna), Taranovsky (Sofia Leonidovna), Anna Konstantinovna Bogdanovich/Nakamura, Georgy Y. Rott, Alexandra Trofimovna Sitnikova-Savrasova/Pokrovsky
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Markovski ... - valiant regiment truly legendary "color" of the division. He had a strange form of mourning: black epaulets, black with a white cap, a black tunic and breeches. It was in mourning for Russia. Markovtsev gained a force unusual, tragic heroism, sacrifice, determination for the country. It is they, Markovtsev in his black uniform, equal and went without a shot on the enemy trenches. And the enemy paralyzed kind of superhuman perseverance of these people ... (p. 372)

The campaign continues, and we hope that we going to replace the generation born in exile and in our homeland ... finish this hike overthrow the Communists and the restoration of Russia on the basis of ancestral history of Holy Russia. (P. 373)

An excerpt from a poem written by the lieutenant-Markovtsev on Christmas:

"... And in the heart, in bezprosvetnuyu night / deaden the soul exile / Our Russian strengthen faith / The force neobornuyu suffering ..." YR (P. 374)

June 1919. Monastery near Belgorod.
A group of officers from the battalion captain SLAC came to the convent to worship his shrines. They were met by the abbot, a nun and abbess. The abbot blessed the defenders of the Orthodox Faith and distributed to all the black monastic prayer beads - a symbol of service to the Church and people. The officers were deeply touched by this blessing. Wearing a rosary in his hands, they found the gift related not only to him personally, but to the entire regiment; We considered that all Markovtsev from this day can wear monastic rosaries.

Fate as if she sent Markovtsev the path of Christian service - Faith and Fatherland, the Church and the people. And then remembered ... When Novocherkassk formed the 1st Battalion officer in its ranks raises the question of creating a "Crusade" mouth that would have on their uniforms crosses - a symbol of the campaign for the Faith and Fatherland. But then, the commission found naked, black straps with white piping - a symbol of death and resurrection. Remember and bless others nunnery - Intercession Monastery under Ekaterinodar. We talked about the blessing of St. Sergius of Radonezh - the heavenly patron of the regiment and chief (shelf), General Markov.

Unusual to see a monastic Markovtsev rosary on her arm. Those who wore them - wore with dignity. They said - belonging Markovtsev form. But it has not caught on - the authorities reacted regiment is not serious - they are issued within the meaning of this profound fact of the regiment it into oblivion. Maybe because he knew - in the midst of fierce struggle could not help stall the voice of the Christian conscience, hardens the heart and the inevitable violation of debt associated with the wearing of beads. Silent about the blessing and the regimental chaplain. But they are not forgotten: there were, who in his life and deeds mentally fingered rosary beads ... (p. 51)

(From the book .: prof., Ml. Gunner Baron V.Davatts "In Moscow", Paris, 1921).

To recreate the army, we must form new cadres are not just soldiers, but the spiritual knights. Not just service, but penance should be the basis of our life. (P. 16)

Above ideal unified Russia (Bolsheviks seek a unified Russia) is the ideal of truth and goodness for which we are fighting. (P. 25)

January 1920. (On the train, "the Terrible" at Rostov.)
... Every day, everything trembles in us from the cold. We do not sleep all night. But we are willing, but as the first day. Neither cold nor half-starved existence did not break our resolve ... sooner or later, we made our way to Moscow. Only there is our vacation. Only when we can say to our country: "Nunc Dimittis thy servant Yako ... my eyes have seen your salvation ..." (p. 26)

On 23 February. Ekaterinodar. (Betrayal of the Cossacks, the collapse and retreat of the white troops.)
accomplished the great mystery of life and death. Almost everyone I meet, the days of horror and despair. It seems that the old foundations are crumbling. It seems that the Antichrist, vozsedayuschy in the Kremlin, triumphs over the desecrated Christ. And people are willing to damn thing the service of Christ - for the seal of the Antichrist in everything they see on the ground. A voice like thunder, proznes fateful words: "As many as disclosure - Come out ..." and ends with the liturgy of the catechumens. It begins the liturgy of the faithful. (P. 66)

The more catechumens depart from our liturgy, the purer and better will be our last service. (P. 67)

Is it time to raise the question of pure volunteerism, about the Order of the Knights of the spiritual, which take only after probation? (P. 68)

Someday face animal is defeated radiance of spirit ... (p. 74)

May the Lord keep the spirit alive, so with fear and trembling, but without despair and horror start to the beginning of the new liturgy. (P. 76)

March 11th. Novorossiysk. (In the rearguard of the retreating troops.)
We bring maybe a sacrifice ... I attributed to the number of doom and true to the end.

We went with the lieutenant AP to the station. Our two cannon and machine-gun platform stood near the station, brightly lit by electricity. Lieutenant L. Armored Division commander acting our part. He sat wrapped in a cloak of the commander in the cabin. It was cold, and he apparently chilled. His eyes are expressive, were tired, and I read them the same idea and the same feeling that it was in me, we were going to certain death ... (p. 92)

As knights, doing his duty. In the name of duty, fearlessly and without complaint, he brought his prey, and he, and his dark eyes were stern and sad. And the sadness of those eyes solder me to him more new bonds. (P. 97)

I fell to the ground, his head resting on someone from sleeping comrades. These minutes ... close unity connects me with them special threads, special attachment that people do not know, does not happen in the fighting; This is a great reward for the horrors of the blood, which is losing its price ... hide darkness of the night sky will light up the light of a new greatness. In this sky, in the rays of sunlight will ascend to the throne of God and preserve the honor of the dead.

For the sky shone flame, cleanses us from the madding crowd ... For it is burning in your greatness ... (p. 108)

(From the book .: Vl.Kravchenko "Drozdovtsy from Iasi to Gallipoli", Munich, 1975., Vol. 2)

By April 1, 1918. in the Red Army, there were 58,000 soldiers by the end of the same year ... 1,000,000 soldiers. By August 1, 1920. When the main opponent of the Reds was Poland and the Russian army of General Wrangel, ... the number of red army has increased to 4,000,000 people ... Of course, we must take into account the fact that the Reds were forced to keep most of the troops in the rear as a garrison and also as a barrier against the enemy in the Far East, but at the same time provided Red forces at the front is always greater than the strength of their opponents several times. It is also known that at the beginning of the struggle volunteers in southern Russia did not have any warehouses with weapons, missiles and ammunition, and in the hands of the Reds got all the warehouses of the Imperial Russian army in the frontline and central parts of Russia ...

The Red Army already by February 1, 1918. there were 476.000 rifles, 7,000 machine guns and cannon in 1761 ... During the civil war the military industry of Russia, Izhevsk arms workers, Perm, Tula and Putilov factories able to prepare, in addition to the remaining stocks in the warehouses, 887,049 more rifles, 751,000,000 cartridges 10,516 machine guns and 382 guns.

White Army on the eastern and southern fronts of the civil war, according to the book "History of the Civil War in the USSR," has received from the United Kingdom and the supply of weapons by about 350 thousand soldiers, ... for the army of Kolchak Siberian it sent weapons, supplies and uniforms for 100,000. Now we all know that, unfortunately, very, very much out of all delivered to the Armed Forces of Southern Russia fell into the hands of the Reds during the retreat of the Volunteer and Don armies of the Eagle, with the abandonment of Rostov-on-Don in 1919 and during the evacuation of Novorossiysk. The number of the Armed Forces of Southern Russia in October 1919. increased to 150,000 soldiers, ... and in the ranks of the Siberian army of Admiral Kolchak , retreat to her, there were 130,000 people.

... At the front is always rare exceptions, the number of Red Army troops exceeded the number of white several times, and in the last days of fighting in the Crimean sector of the front outnumbered the Reds reached unprecedented dimensions, as well as the superiority of their armament. (P. 253-254)

The Polish army, after the defeat of the Reds near Warsaw, will soon have pursued the retreating Reds beyond the borders of Poland, but also soon, England refused to Poland for further assistance, the Germans did not agree to pass military equipment and weapons through Danzig and Czechoslovakia closed its borders and sent France, Poland weapon missed. The Polish government has agreed to enter into a truce proposed by the Council. Stop fighting.

With the release of the Polish simultaneous with General Wrangel struggle with the Reds, the Russian army was no more likely to succeed ... (p. 267)

When General Wrangel, saw the hopelessness of the situation, he stopped further resistance and fine evacuated its troops and civilians associated with the army, from the Crimea. Red failed to destroy the Russian army, in spite of the overwhelming superiority in numbers and weapons. The Russian army, with their leader, went into exile. (P. 272)

On the eve of the evacuation of General Wrangel he presented military banners, banners embroidered with the representatives of the parts they established the motto of the Order of the Crimea (the cross) St. Nicholas, the patron saint of Emperor Nicholas II and the blessing of the White Army, icons Patriarch Tikhon: "Russia will be saved by faith." The troops saw them already in exile in Gallipoli.

Supreme Commander Admiral Kolchak, General Wrangel, Kutepov, Drozdowski, Mark, Kappel, Keller Turkul, Manstein ... - about 80% of the Volunteer Army officers were monarchists; in their parts of the gene. Drozdovskii already created during the formation of a secret monarchist organization (Denikin, III, 131), but the Russian Tsar abdicated in his face by the Mother of God of the Living God - and the volunteers did not fight for the political system, but for the great Holy Russia, home of the Mother of God leaving the outer form of government it is determined after the victory. So it will be, and already have! Holy Russia lived in the burning love and sacrifice dedicated to her heart white soldiers , its heroes and monks - but with such a whole had become a Russian ... - Ed.

In a country with a population at that time more than 150 million., To protect their violated rights stood at first only single - and those, mainly of young people. (In 1917. Emperor's army numbered 5 million. Pers., The officer corps - about 300,000 people. - Ed.) Then, in the ranks of the whites in the south of Russia was the best part of the nation - Russian boys, adolescents, women and even children, who, together with officers Cossacks, volunteers and students have been from the very beginning of the struggle, doomed and dying, covered themselves with everlasting glory. Future Russia remembers them, be sure to remember, as the Knights of the debt, but also do not forget about those not allowed to forget who did not offer them a helping hand, leave them alone to bleed in the unequal struggle. (P. 273)

Whites were defeated, but ideas for which they fought, and now continue to live in the hearts of millions of people, turned into slaves, and although slow, but approaching the time of their release. (P. 275)

After the end of the armed struggle with the red and white of the distant Siberia brought with them into exile his song ... Since then, this song sounds everywhere scattered among all the countries of white fighters for the honor and freedom of Russia ...

You swept snow, Russia / Zapurzhilo a gray blizzard, / And the cold winds of the steppe, / Requiem sung over you.
No way, no trace of the plains, / By the boundless snow drifts. / Do not get to his family shrines, / Do not listen to native voices.
swept, skidded zapurzhilo / All holy gray blizzard. / Thou blind cold force / You like death, lifeless snow.
You swept snow, Russia / Zapurzhilo a gray blizzard, / And the cold winds of the steppe, / Requiem sung over you ... (p. 279)

Lieutenant Regiment Genkin Drozdowski wrote ... for the holiday Christmas poem "Guiding Star":

Our holiday ... far ... ... Former / Snow drifts on the river ice rink ... ... / rosy cheeks, fingers frozen, / Mother pale stern rebuke.
Time is short even before Christmas Eve, / days if in fairytale gone ... / seen everything from the nearest spruce / Yolka brought yesterday.
on the tree will be handed out gifts to all, / how much joy! In the bitter cold / With dark sky covered by stars, / Christ descended quietly ...
With this naive, childlike faith / left in a blizzard and a snowstorm ... / take away the joy - a soldier's gray / in the old patched cloak.
To take away the joy of the trenches, battle / explosions of shells, shooting, gun ... / We had one consolation - / All for Russia and all of the people.
All of a sudden unexpected blizzards whirled ... / All it skidded - and fields and forests. / And in Russia, sick and abused, / Death band passed.
Life was with such a bifurcated, / Rodina back there ... / Throughout the world scattered warriors / With an eternal hope in the breast.
Let the cold Christmas night / In the heart of sadness will dissipate: / From childhood, we shining star guiding / Our Holy Great Russia!

For Drozdovtsev and to this day the Holy Great Russia - a guiding star ... (p. 258) Nearly three years continued the heroic struggle of the white with red in the south of Russia, and in this struggle Drozdovtsy passed triumphant march without losing morale even in the days our failures. (P. 361)

(From the Journal. "All", number 97, Paris, 1933).

White movement is not the subject of the story, and there is really historical dates, at least for the Volunteer Army, may be only two: the beginning - November 2, 1917 and the end - when the Lord tells him, there, in Moscow ... (P. . 23)

! 918g. Siberian Cadet Corps Alexander.
The Bolsheviks demanded publicly remove epaulets, a symbol of the Imperial Army and the military honor. At night the cadets gathered lay down straps to the little coffin and then, risking their lives, secretly buried in a vacant lot. Cadet Luzanov, Grade 6, read a poem written by him-a vow:

The time has come for a serious body time / Steel is dark for us the light of God: / bathed in blood red seed / running stripped Cadet ...
Yet we have not lost faith, / We know that light the dawn / Vozstanut heroes fighters officers, / And with them will go to the cadets.
They were the wall will Cadets, / Like a flock of youthful falcons / Courage grief and joy warmed / hurl all enemies.
And our tyrants, the power of evil / disappear forever, like smoke, / And we are for the offense, All expensive, / For honor our revenge ... it (p. 28)

1907. Graduation cadets of St. Petersburg schools are built. ... The Sovereign toured the front. After graduating from the detour, the Emperor goes to the middle of the ... movement of his hand - and there is silence. We hear the king's word, deep in the soul of the West.

The Emperor says that we should protect the holy Faith and Fatherland, to faithfully serve his motherland and, as an example for his subordinates, which should be treated not only demanding and strict but paternal care ... (p. 25)

(From the book .: "Emperor Nicholas II Alexandrovich", ed. Ser.Zavalishin, New York, 1968).

Memory of the Martyrs

"In the Urals have forgotten mine. / Let us remember them with uncovered head. / They killed Princess disappeared. /
Soul Russian unexpected bend, / not find the graves that we, / Where is the Tsarevich tortured, /
Empress of the murdered mother, / Scary finished his earthly path, / Where there is pain, where the joy of non-removable, /
You're waking his eternal goodness, / An only pray that my God / Soothe our sorrow everlasting, /
CO repose of the Holy King.
Those who have always been loyalty, / Who donated a fair, / Whose body all the bayonets tattered, - /
Soul sinful you repose. " Captain M. Sheremet. (P. 205)

One Russian prisoner in Belgium told me in the days of the Second World War: "And the late King seen! .. During the retreat, near Kiev, and then at Smolensk ... He always appeared at a difficult moment! The soldiers were afraid of the enemy raids, well, since the King people showed up and directed the movement elsewhere, where there were safer ... No one can say exactly when and where, but - seen! .. He showed his hands to quietly were not to be afraid, and always with such kindness .. . "

And one farmer said directly: "I prayed to him people! Where you will go? Who do you say? But he, Russian Tsar, pray, weep, and your soul will be easier ..."

Serbian Church canonized the Tsar with the Family of the saints. People prayed: ... "You, Russian Tsar, knower of all the troubles and unhappiness, your faithful nobles, deceived by traitors and vile people ... pray for us sinners!" (P. 203)

(From the book. Comrade. (Deputy). Procurator of the Synod Prince ND Zhevakhov "Memories", Munich, 1923., Vol. 1.2)

10-24 January 1918. The Siege of Kiev the Bolsheviks.
During the ongoing cannonade, which lasted for two weeks, almost every house pious prayers were served, and there was not a single case that was killed and the priest praying ... At the time of the liturgy in the Church of the Tithes St. Nicholas heavy shell hit the main dome of the temple and flying through the temple, ran into the throne, which was offered at this point bloodless sacrifice to God. The projectile did not explode, and the pastor of the Church continued to worship. A similar incident took place in the Church of Candlemas. Innumerable number of the signs of God is done in front of the chapel to the people of Kiev B. Zhitomir street belonging to "Skeet Most Pure", which went even stole the Bolsheviks. Everyone is familiar with the case where the whole company Bolsheviks razstrelivala a young officer at the time, when his wife, kneeling praying in the chapel of the Mother of God, filling the icon "unexpectedness of joy" ... tears
in an accident releasing dozens of rifle bullets, the Bolsheviks sent him away, saying, "Koli you even a bullet does not take, so go get yourself on all four sides, once messing with you ..." (p. 37)

The corner house ... rector Sretensky church served a prayer service. At this point, a heavy shell hit the house ... with terrifying power of flying without hitting any of the faithful, through the room and punched a hole in the wall ... exploded on the pavement, killing only those who, without waiting for the end of the prayer, I went out of the house. (P. 37)

July 6, 1923. Kiev. With lightning speed through the city to spread the news that in the Church of All the Afflicted that Sennoy market, wonderfully renewed under the dome of the bell tower, and the icon of Our Lady of Kazan at the entrance to the Church ...

The entire area in front of the church and all the surrounding streets were covered with a crowd of thousands. The sun was setting, the evening came, and updated white dome shining golden color. This dome I knew perfectly ... All he was some kind of unclear, sandy indeterminate color. Glitter was not in it any. And suddenly he was now not only cover the new, shiny gold, but even light some mysterious light.
In the morning on July 6, when it became known wonderful update of the dome and the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God, tens of thousands of people rushed there to behold marvelous manifestation of God's power. In the eyes of the audience happened wonderful sign of God: one after another, gradually mysterious icon of St. updated. Seraphim, Helena, Constantine and Theodosius of Chernigov, written on the bell tower dome drum. All watched with bated breath to see how in a minute appeared gilding, faces brightened and faded paint on were dilapidated and icons. Now they are like new, as we have just written. (P. 343)

In the Church itself refreshed Three hundred Shroud, Crucifixion and two banners. Shroud was quite old and tarnished. Now the whole shroud shines in gold and silver and affects all its beauty and artistry. It's the same banners. (P. 343-344)

Everything is then in the temple, turned their attention to a completely dark icon hanging on the wall. She was wearing a bright glow in a spot, which began to grow more and more. In less than an hour, before the shocked people face beamed St. Nicholas, ... (a few hours) has refreshed the entire middle part of the image of St. Nicholas, but the circle was the perfect black. And here ... in the eyes of all that were in the church, the light emanating from the face of St. Nicholas, penetrated farther and farther away, absorbing and dissolving the darkness and blackness that covered more of the icons do not update, and finally acted in all its glory whole image of St. Nicholas.

Now it is evening. The church was dark. Electricity is not burned. But the face of the saint shone some special superhuman inner light. It was an amazing picture. For the first time in my life I saw the power of the religious impulse of the crowd .... St. Nicholas shone among us as a living, and all felt his presence ... All those who now saw the icon, in one voice say, that such an image of St. Nicholas beauty and grandeur, none of us had ever met. (P. 344)

The next day, July 7, began updating the second dome of the same church and icons located under the dome ... For three days completely renewed all the icons that are on the domes - St.Vladimir, Olga, Nicholas, Alexander Nevsky, Alex, Peter and others. But the dome completely renewed. The same day, the St. George Church renewal began. Especially icon depicting "Agony in the Garden" and ... cover and the icon image of Christ the Savior from the cross, going to Golgotha. In addition, the updated More dome on the Church of the Nativity in Podil.

One of the most remarkable upgrades occurred under the bell tower of St. Sophia Cathedral. There's a long time, almost since the time of Peter Graves, hanging image Wonderworker St. Nicholas (wet) with a child, drowned in the river in the 1072g. On it but two or three dark figures, it was impossible to make out. Now the ancient icon is a picture of marvelous beauty. Before beaming in gold way communication. Nicholas is a child out of the water, and are the parents, priests and monks, the elderly, and in the distance you can see the Dnieper, painted with great skill. All artists amazed by this wondrous way. Update began with a bell tower, was on Thursday, that is, a day dedicated to the memory of St. Nicholas of Myra. "(p. 343-345)

(From the book .: S.N.Ryasnyansky "Ice campaign 1918-1953 gg.", Ed. Pervopohodnikov Defence Union, Paris, 1953).

We must believe that the Russian people will return to the way of love, for in the blood and suffering of love is born, and only in it to make sense of our existence. (P. 27)

Ice Hike lasts. He is eternal, immortal like the soul in people - unquenchable lamp, Light Teplyaev Lord ... We - the white knights of Russian land ... (p. 49-50)

"Struggle for Russia is not yet finished, she took a different form ..." - General Wrangel in exile.

(From the book. "The apocalyptic alarm," Revelation of Our Lady in Russia Archbishop John (1987-90gg.), Ed., "New Holy Russia", Moscow, 1995).

Word of the Mother of God:
"This day grace stepped from the church, understood the Old and the public. The Holy Spirit on my chosen, whose lungs are full of Me, whose aspirations - the Lord and the Virgin in Glory! My Bosom take them oblistaet light, warmth warm, shielding the temple, Finger and sukazuyuschy so bring them under the protection of an angel and help escape the temptation and temptations on the way ...

Light cover and Marian oblistal universe, and anyone from a sincere heart laboring fervently in church, be comforted, strengthened and upokaivalsya - Church met him, patronized on the earthly way and accompanied in the way everlasting ... Among the kings and patriarchs were pious princes and rulers, and Providence Holy claimed their hands - as location - the order of humility, love and light ... "(p. 71)

"The Church - not a fixed house, not a temple of the earth and heaven only cathedral. Church - state governed meek lamb, the emperor (king). The Church - the community, oppressed and those who suffer in the name of God. The Church - the soul of the soldiers who died on the battlefield. Church - the relics of fragrant. Wherever the light and the truth - there is the Holy Church of Christ. Wherever proclaimed to the world order, repentance, humility, entrusting to the will of God, love of enemies, and sweet tenderness in the gate - alive Theotokos Church militant Paraklita- Spirit!

Blessed be talking about the Church-martyr, assailed the enemy, grieving; the flesh of the Church, as Christ Himself.

Divine Providence did not limit the action of the Holy Spirit only hermits, elders, expels monks blessed, holy fools and martyrs. Among my many true secret to Nicodemus held high posts in the state; many pastors, light and warmth of charity rises from the death-bed and solazna hundred souls, leading them to a place of repentance - Mount Calvary, to the wall sobbing and crying ...

It is true that the Church since the early days it was made bitter enemy. Demon tempted the Lord in the desert, after several centuries of stay in the first Christians torturers, has found refuge in the rulers of the earth, disguised by the grace of Christ Crucified for the creation of alien affairs, vile, bloody ...

The Lord told me that the Church as His bride and flesh, popuscheno crucified, and first to be tempted and tested by the enemy. And two years tyschi terrible temptations of worldly glory, sustenance and humility - two thousand years the Church tempted by the devil in the wilderness of the world, until finally they came to the world of the truth of Christ, paraklitskie soldiers, and after forty days of fasting in the desert meet the tempter: "Do not I live by bread alone. " They sought not the outside of a miracle, and internal - transformation, and a dizzy height of arrogance humbly answered: "Do not tempt the Lord your God," and rejected the temptations of the world, answered the tempter: "Lord one serve, to worship him." And so, I brought covenants and performing them made up for the righteous army on earth and in heaven. "(P. 72-73)

White Light Rossi and

© Publishing House "New Holy Russia", 1995.

E-mail: maria@mail.transit.ru

family Sitnikov, Potekhina (Sofia Lukinishna), Taranovsky (Sofia Leonidovna), Anna Konstantinovna Bogdanovich/Nakamura, Georgy Y. Rott, Alexandra Trofimovna Sitnikova-Savrasova/Pokrovsky
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family Sitnikov, Potekhina (Sofia Lukinishna), Taranovsky (Sofia Leonidovna), Anna Konstantinovna Bogdanovich/Nakamura, Georgy Y. Rott, Alexandra Trofimovna Sitnikova-Savrasova/Pokrovsky
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for anyone who is interested

"Sacred squad" Russian officers http://militera.lib.ru/science/vs17/40.html

family Sitnikov, Potekhina (Sofia Lukinishna), Taranovsky (Sofia Leonidovna), Anna Konstantinovna Bogdanovich/Nakamura, Georgy Y. Rott, Alexandra Trofimovna Sitnikova-Savrasova/Pokrovsky
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family Sitnikov, Potekhina (Sofia Lukinishna), Taranovsky (Sofia Leonidovna), Anna Konstantinovna Bogdanovich/Nakamura, Georgy Y. Rott, Alexandra Trofimovna Sitnikova-Savrasova/Pokrovsky
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Front Cover
James Hugh Carter
Cornell University Press, 2002 - History - 217 pages
0 Reviews

James H. Carter outlines the birth of Chinese nationalism in an unlikely setting: the international city of Harbin. Planned and built by Russian railway engineers, the city rose quickly from the Manchurian plain, changing from a small fishing village to a modern city in less than a generation. Russian, Chinese, Korean, Polish, Jewish, French, and British residents filled this multiethnic city on the Sungari River. The Chinese took over Harbin after the October Revolution and ruled it from 1918 until the Japanese founded the puppet state of Manchukuo in 1932. In his account of the radical changes that this unique city experienced over a brief span of time, Carter examines the majority Chinese population and its developing Chinese identity in an urban area of fifty languages. Originally, Carter argues, its nascent nationalism defined itself against the foreign presence in the city—while using foreign resources to modernize the area. Early versions of Chinese nationalism embraced both nation and state. By the late 1920s, the two strands had separated to such an extent that Chinese police fired on Chinese student protesters. This division eased the way for Japanese occupation: the Chinese state structure proved a fruitful source of administrative collaboration for the area's new rulers in the 1930s.

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